Authored by Sam Albee

Classical political liberalism

Classical political liberalism

Classical political liberalism focuses primarily on the rights of the individual and their protection by the state. John Locke (1632-1704), the "forefather of liberalism", assumed that every human being has inalienable rights by nature (liberty, life, property). In order to guarantee social peace and provide the individual with protection and security -, the political power of the state was needed, which could also enforce the desired order through laws (state monopoly on the use of force).

"The great end of men entering into a community is the enjoyment of their property in liberty and security, and the great instrument and means to that end are the laws enacted in that society." (John Locke, 1690)

To prevent state concentration of power and abuse of power, Locke proposed the separation of state power into legislative power - homework answers social studies (parliament) and executive power (government).

Baron Charles de Montesquieu (1689-1755) added to the concept the need for an independent judicial power (courts). This principle of separation of powers aimed at the predictability of state power and the mutual control of independent state institutions - law assignment help . The state may (legitimately) restrict an individual's liberties only if the individual violates laws or causes harm to other individuals or the community. While private life is beyond the reach of the state, social, public life must be politically regulated by the state in order to realize the greatest possible happiness for the greatest number of people (utilitarianism). From a liberal point of view, civil society absolutely requires religious, political and social tolerance, which is regarded as an indispensable civic virtue for peaceful coexistence.

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